Vacuum Gas Oil (VGO) is a type of heavy, low-value, residual oil produced during the vacuum distillation of crude oil. It is obtained after the atmospheric distillation of crude oil, where the crude oil is heated and separated into various fractions based on their boiling points. VGO is produced when the crude oil is further distilled under vacuum at a lower pressure to separate out the heavier, higher boiling point fractions.
VGO typically has a higher boiling range and heavier molecular weight than other refined products like gasoline and diesel. It contains a variety of hydrocarbons, including paraffins, olefins, and aromatics, and may also contain sulfur, nitrogen, and other impurities.
VGO can be further processed using various refining techniques to produce lighter products like gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. One of the most common processes used to upgrade VGO is called hydrotreating, which involves the use of hydrogen and a catalyst to remove sulfur and nitrogen compounds and improve the product's properties, such as its cetane number and viscosity.